A report by a brokerage on Satyam Computers gives an 'accumulate' rating, which means it expects the stock to go up. The rating is based on the company's high cash/market cap ratio. The information technology company had reported a cash balance of Rs 4,500 crore at the end of the 2007-08 financial year. The report gives a one-year price target of Rs 373 for the stock. The stock closes at Rs 273 the day the report is written.
January 2009: The same brokerage releases a hurriedly-compiled report suspending the previous rating. "Low market cap, high cash status no longer holds," it says. On 7 January 2009, the founder of Satyam Computers admits to inflating cash and bank balances by Rs 5,040 crore, overstating debtors' position (money lent) of Rs 2,650 crore as against the actual figure of Rs 490 crore and non-disclosure or understatement of liabilities worth Rs 1,230 crore.
The Satyam accounting scam, one of the biggest in India, left millions of investors in the lurch, as the stock fell from Rs 179 to Rs 23 in one trading session.
The inability of stock analysts to identify the 'gaps' in Satyam's books and ring warning bells proved costly for investors. Had investors known the basics of reading financial statements and techniques used by companies to report false numbers, they would have asked their advisors a few valid questions about Satyam's finances.